Monday, September 30, 2019

Profesions of Women

Dreams Moving Forward If one thinks hard minded off goal, the goal will become difficult, but if one thinks easy minded of a goal, that goal can become a reality. In Virginia Wolf's passage, â€Å"Professions for Women,† Wolf targets women to Inform them how limited they are In a population full of males. Her mall Idea Is to not let your conscious or others hold you from doing what you want to do. Wolf uses metaphors and imagery to support her concern during her controlled era.Wolf begins by metaphorically describing a fisherman as if he was a girl alone next to a lake. She quotes, â€Å"l think of this girl is the image of a fisherman lying sunk in dreams on the verge of a deep lake with a rod held out over the water (276). She patiently waits at the edge of the lake with a rod lined into the lake. Her goals are in the water and her rod is being used to catch her goals if she waits patiently. The fisherman is able to explore her â€Å"imagination† (276) without even t hinking about it or letting anything get In her way.Then her rod â€Å"dashed Itself against something hard† (276) and the girl was In a â€Å"dream† (276) and she was awoken. By describing owe the fisherman was a girl, Wolf Illustrates how a women could think of dreams and Inspirations, Just Like men, but then the dreams are ruined by knowing they wouldn't come true due to the overpopulation of males during the time. She Is convinced that she would never meet her aspirations just because of the opposite sex. Women felt controlled due to the fact that men restricted women to stay and take care of the home.At the time Wolf was too frightened to take the extra step to make her â€Å"imagination† come true. Throughout the passage, Wolf uses imagery to convey that there is an â€Å"angel† (274) in her own home. She describes the angel as â€Å"sympathetic† (274) and â€Å"pure† (274), the characteristics that women had during the Victorian time. Wolf then kills the angel, If she didn't, the angel would have â€Å"plucked the heart out of her writing† (275). The angel symbolizes the women of this time period's oppressive state brought on upon the strong male role In society.The angel compelled Wolf to overcome the Limitations of being a Victorian woman. Victorian women had to put food on the table, clean, take care of their children, and stay at home while their husbands went out and worked and expected to be taken care of. Wolf wanted to reek the stereotype placed upon her; she was not an ordinary housewife. She wanted to be what others would not have expected her to be. It was part of the â€Å"occupation of a woman writer (275) to kill the angel.If Wolf did not kill that angel, it would have come back and wouldn't have let Wolf pursue her dreams. At the end of the passage, Wolf metaphorically conveys the â€Å"empty rooms† (277) that women can claim. Wolf quotes â€Å"though not without great labor and ef fort, to pay the rent† (277) she wants to challenge women to â€Å"decorate† their own room by putting things that they feel what's right or what they have accomplished and to share† (277) their accomplishments with other but must share the room with caution and not show It to the wrong people, for Instance, a male.Wolf wants to show that other women, like herself, can achieve so much by themselves, they should not let the use of metaphors and imagery. Wolf's message can satisfy anyone who is going through trouble, she reveals that women during that time did not try to fight nor question what was expected from them. She has become a role model for people that need to know that they can do anything imaginable, as long as they find a way to work around their obstacles.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Educational circles Essay

Lifelong education is a concept not to vague in today’s educational circles. It has been used in many different forms to promote a person’s pursuance to knowledge. It is claimed that life is education, practically speaking when you live you encounter deterrents or resistance in forms of challenges. It is normal for a person to face this situation, in here you will see that ones failure and challenges arise man’s normal tendency is to adapt and move on. Therefore learning and educating himself on the situation he/she has just experienced (Smith M. 1996). The issue that can be seen in pursuing further education is Man’s ability to absorb and effectively comprehending knowledge at a certain age. Man’s psyche changes as it progress deep into the application of his/her field or application. When the application stage of man kicks in he or she finds it difficult to learn new things because his/her paradigm is already stuck on its present state. That’s why preparation to a lifelong education is vital. It features a lot of difference between specializing. Specializing is done when man pursues and therefore encloses himself to a specific study. Not only that, he or she will be engrossed in its application, one reason for this is the field maybe his or her source of income. Examples are doctors, engineers, or architects who pursue to improve knowledge in their respective fields. The difference between lifelong learning and specialization is on it’s the width of its spectrum. A person pursuing a lifelong learning is more open he or she views mistakes as an opportunity of learning. A person pursuing specialization is not close minded but more coherent in their studies, and they usually have a rigid paradigm. The importance of differentiating lifelong learning and specialization is important. Creating standard studies on this topic will give students and educators a point of reference. This point of reference will assist our education system on integrating this to a learner’s life. Show them the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing one side to the other. Or even provide an evolvement study to at some proportion integrate the two different sides together. Reference: Smith M. (1996). Lifelong learning. http://www. infed. org/lifelonglearning/b-life. htm

Friday, September 27, 2019

What difines a good community how do we build better Essay

What difines a good community how do we build better - Essay Example According to Wikipedia, the Spanish National Health System aims to extend services to the entire population. It also has the provision to have comprehensive health care with high standards. Spain is known for a lot of products. Their economy is affected by their produce of olive oil, several kinds of fruits, vegetables, poultry, metal, and textile. Most of their significant dealings are with France, Italy, Great Britain, and Germany. Despite its economic progress in recent years, it still falls back as compared to other European countries (â€Å"Spain: Economy†). Concerning eco-villages, most projects are in the starting phase. In a social networking site that aims to sustain environment friendly communities, a hectare has been purchased to be developed into a garden haven for its future occupants (â€Å"Sustainable Eco-villages†). As what is shown in the assessment of the State of the Environment Report that was published in 2010, areas affected by sulfur oxide have de creased over the years. Harmful gasses are mostly pervasive in metropolitan areas but not so in rural places. Spain’s different zones are taken into thorough consideration when it comes to the assessments (â€Å"Air Pollution†). On the other hand, what is actually happening in the society may be different from the ideals that are being acknowledged. Like any other nation, problems arise to challenge noble community goals and philosophies. Regarding its health care system, getting sick may be costly as compared to other countries like the United Kingdom or Canada (Spanish Habitat, â€Å"Moving and Living in Spain†). The Spanish Health Services do not address the comprehensive benefits like others have. Nursing homes are under the respective authorities per district. From the same online source, employment is also said to be difficult especially for foreigners. Most jobs are seasonal depending on holidays and other events.

Cinematographic Representation of Violence and Abuse of Women Essay - 1

Cinematographic Representation of Violence and Abuse of Women - Essay Example Norindr main concept that he examines deeply is modernity and he stresses that it has been an ongoing manifestation of the omnipotent cultural force, an incomplete project in the West. As a result, Norindr examines the active participants in the transformation to be the ‘modern subjects’ of the emerging modern societies who are negotiating imaginative ways; their place in the postcolonial spaces in some cities such as Saigon. In his film vision, he identifies Tran Anh Hung Film which, although it had been shot from a Vietnamese ‘aura’, the movie is a selection of Vietnam that had lost its traditional innocence. Prostitution, capitalism, and torture are what the filmmaker wants to debunk as being the clichà ©s about Vietnam, similar to what has been conveyed in Vietnam Hollywood war movies. The film shows people living in hopes, ambitions, and frustrations engraved in a culture of crime, prostitution, and uncannily no respect for humanity. In his thesis, Nor indr believes that the violence, capitalism, and misrepresentation of women in Tran Anh Hung Film is a manifestation of emerging modernity that has taken the shape of Western colonialism such as the crime business which is evident in the film. Paul Narkunas is also critical about the life of frustration that has been experienced by the Vietnamese due to the influence of the West. Narkunas is very descriptive about the 1986 market liberalization in Vietnam and directly begins his analysis by describing Tran Anh Hung Film. Narkunas examines the economic transition of an eighteen-year-old cyclo, and the camerawork emphasizes on the diagramming of flow of money and bodies.  

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Early Neolithic Social Organization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Early Neolithic Social Organization - Essay Example The first one is Pre Pottery Neolithic which is all about the "true farming" that occurred where people were used to planting and harvesting wheat. Along with farming is the domestication of animals, also to answer their day-to-day needs. This stage was followed by the pre-pottery period where people tried to build their houses made of mud bricks. No long before they learned pottery which further improved their lives and this was the peak of the Neolithic period. The Neolithic period that slowly evolved along with knowledge and experience, somehow showed the presence of social organizations. The presence of hierarchies can somehow be traced through the burial grounds and an example of this is the one found in the excavation in Central Europe where some tombs were found to be different from others in a way that they looked more sophisticated and hard to make, suggesting that others could have afforded labor to create such tombs. Through the Neolithic sites that were explored, what were visible were signs of possibilities for group feuds where others could have been treated more superior like the leaders and the chiefs in tribes. These were more visible in the European Bronze age. (Wikipedia) Moving forward to the possibility of reconstructing the early Neolithic social o... As discussed partly a while ago, there were already the different kinds of tombs found during the excavation. These tombs will then connect us to their culture and social structure, ways and means that they tried to adopt in the past. But firs we try to define what megalithic tombs are and how significant are they to historians, researchers and archaeologists. Maximilian Baldia explores in his essay "Megalithic Tombs and Interregional Communication" how long and how significant these tombs are to us. He said that the closely five thousand megalithic tombs signify how people were connected in different aspects. He also explained that the presence of timber mortuary during the Neolithic period can and might have been the start of the small primeval dolmens in the Early Neolithic. "Furthermore, the popularity of the primeval dolmen may have arisen as a practical solution resulting from the need for suitable large trees required for building houses, palisades, boats and apparently even single-piece wagonwheels. Increased village size, more numerous fields, and larger herds of domesticated grazing animals during the later part of the EN C would have reduced the forests containing these timbers near the villages, making stone construction more cost effective. A decline in tree trunk diameter used in construction from the ENto the MiddleNeolithic (MN), has been noted in conjunction with likely woodland management and supports this argument. Therefore, stone chambers should first have occurred in areas where a large population would have been confined to limited land. The most likely place in the TRB culture area would have been the islands

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

FBI Jounral The Deadly Mix Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

FBI Jounral The Deadly Mix - Essay Example This is just an example of an occurrence where the Deadly Mix came together, which, according to the authors, have caused deaths and fatal injuries to the enforcement agents involved. Hence, profound understanding and insightful examination of these elements as well as proper knowledge with regards the issue could save an officer's life as it is quite impossible to profile which offender will likely assault an officer. Similarly, even an officer who relies on his long experience in confronting offenders in risky circumstances may discover that his 'complacency' can be a trap. The interaction of each of the facet of these components, the authors contends, 'are fluid and dynamic' as wrong perception and assumption of at least one of the three have dangerous consequences to an officer. A careful examination of these occurrences can prevent an officer from putting his life to risks (Pinizzotto et al, 2007). An assessment of this issue is ex

Tuesday, September 24, 2019


A BALANCED SCORECARD FROM THE PUBLISHED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF JOHN LEWIS - Coursework Example Nowadays, the employee co-owned business numbers nearly 76,500 employees (John Lewis Plc, 2011). Business activity of John Lewis Partnership is differentiated by several directions, including: John Lewis full line department stores and John Lewis at home stores, Waitrose supermarkets, Waitrose convenience stores, and online store (John Lewis plc, 2011). The first shop of John Lewis has been opened in 1864; for 147 years, the company has achieved unbelievable growth, by opening 35 John Lewis shops and enabling customers to enjoy shopping online through the corporate website (John Lewis Partnership, n.d). In order to understand what are the key drivers of the growth of John Lewis and what its pledge of success is it is critical to understand the whole picture of the company’s activity. For this purpose it might be helpful to use the Balanced Scorecard tool. According to the official sources, the balanced scorecard is defined as: â€Å"a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and non-profit organisations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organisation, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organisation performance against strategic goals† (, n.d.). ... Strategy – Customer perspective Every profitable organization strives to achieve profit and/or maximize it. In Business-To-Consumer (B2C) model it is fairly difficult or even impossible to achieve financial objectives if the customer is neglected or treated by the company in not appropriate manner. John Lewis, being one of the UK’s retail giant, has achieved tremendous financial success mainly due to understanding â€Å"this rule of capitalistic world†. John Lewis is a company which strives to understand customer’s needs, to know their wants and relying on these, to continue to provide the best possible choice, value and service (John Lewis Partnership, n.d.). Thus, the company’s strategy is based on three pillars: 1. The best value, choice and service. John Lewis maintains competitive prices in order to retain existing customers and attract new ones, offers â€Å"an unrivalled product assortment† to customers, and provides excellent service through proper staff motivation (John Lewis Partnership, n.d.). 2. Accessible shops and service; John Lewis actively expands the territories of its shops in order to reach the maximum amount of potential customers. The key principles include easy access to shopping, either by visiting John Lewis’s locations or by ordering items through the website. Such multi-channel approach to retail enables company to increase customer’s satisfaction and loyalty to the brand. 3. Careful listening to what customers want (John Lewis Partnership, n.d.). John Lewis continuously maintains dialogues with its customers in order to understand what are their needs and wants, what are their interests and preferences. Thus, the company tracks its results in

Monday, September 23, 2019

Evaluate leadership as practiced in the life of Jesus Christ in the Essay

Evaluate leadership as practiced in the life of Jesus Christ in the light of 21st century context - Essay Example The paper will touch on Jesus’ ministry and its application in modern church leadership. The analysis will draw its facts mainly from the Gospels. From the start of his ministry, Jesus set out to mentor leaders that would lead the early church. He selected twelve disciples with different skills, talents, passions and personalities and mentored them to become a team. He taught them to use their varied strengths in order to support each other in the ministry. Christ shaped a leadership structure with a leader who had others supporting him. By the time he ascended to Heaven, he had built a leadership structure comprising Peter as the Head and the other disciples supporting him in a united team that worked together. This team of early church leaders had a unity of purpose to spread the Gospel to all nations. They went out preaching and in their deeds complimented each other’s works. From this early structure, the modern church can draw lessons on how to structure its leadership to attain better results in ministering the Gospel. Traditionally, the church used the hierarchy model of leadership. However, with the growth of the church, there have been changes that have necessitated a shift to an empowered team model of leadership. Many leaders have found they overwhelmed and overworked under the hierarchy model. With the empowered team model, the problem is solved as the leaders work with others in a team. This model emphasizes mentorship of new leaders and the development of a team spirit among the leaders to enhance good working relations to boost delivery of the vision of the church. Empowerment means that leaders drop bureaucratic structures so that people develop a sense of ownership and belonging in the leadership process. It enables them put into use their skills, experiences, energies and ambitions. Active participation by the different members of the team will make them accept the responsibilities that come with the leadership (Maxwell, 2005, p.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

European society Essay Example for Free

European society Essay The eighteenth century saw a revolution sweeping Western philosophy and a simultaneous upheaval and transformation in Western social life. In this period, the west, particularly the European society and state seemed cold and heartless. The dislocations of industrialization and urbanization exposed the weaknesses of the old system and stimulated a need for more innovative political institutions adaptable to the new socio-economic conditions. This desire for change was accompanied by strong nationalist sentiments. Initial Western nationalism was lauded as a liberal form of mass political engagement and allegiance to the secular power of emerging states, consistent with popular rule. Accordingly, its birth was announced with the representation, rights, and toleration of Englands constitutional monarchy and its banner the â€Å"liberty, equality and fraternity† of the French Revolution against absolutism. Many scholars estimate the birth of the American nation from 1750-1775 (see for example, Weeks, 1994). In the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, social, political, and economic turmoil and instability transformed many Western countries into the world’s most chaotic amphitheater of disruption. People who thought that their cultural and political borders were violated waged a series of insurrections and rebellions. This strong feeling and desire to fight violations of inalienable natural rights came to be known as nationalism. Nationalist feelings became a decisive power in the Romantic Era. In nationalism, the individual is â€Å"the very center, the arbiter, the sovereign of the universe† (Kedourie, 1993, p.17). The political implication of this was that self-determination constituted the supreme good. Later political philosophers building upon Kantian ideas proposed that: humanity is naturally divided into nations; each nation has its peculiar character; the source of all political power is the nation; for freedom and self-realization, people must identify with a nation; loyalty to the nation-states overrides other loyalties; and the primary condition of global freedom and harmony is the strengthening of the nation-state (Smith, 1983). In the early years of the twentieth century, the striking similarity displayed by the nationalist movements throughout Southeast Asia derived from their common inspiration in Western ideology and their largely identical economic bases – the former guiding the intellectuals who lead the movements in their respective countries; the latter supplying the driving power from the masses. However, it must be pointed out that nationalist movements in this region did not have the support of more than a very small fraction of the native peoples, who for the most part are not aware that the question of autonomy even exists, and whose major concern is simply survival (Emmerson, Mills, and Thompson, 1942). In Southeast Asia, native nationalism has been the forced growth of a transplanted Western seed. In spite of the centrifugal forces of a plural society artificially bound together solely by the profit motive, nationalism has taken root among the indigenous peoples. It has penetrated most deeply among the native peoples who are united by a common language, pride of race and glorious historical traditions (Emmerson, Mills, and Thompson, 1942). Thus, â€Å"Within each group, nationalism has proved to be a cohesive force, welding people who were until its advent hardly conscious of the existence of compatriots beyond their own village, absorbing disparate religious and regional loyalties, and nationalizing such international influences as they experienced. However, from the perspectives of Southeast Asian countries as individual units, nationalism has proved a disruptive force. It has made each racial group more self-conscious, more prone to assert itself at the expense of other groups, and either tends toward a disastrous break-up of the present mosaic by some vigilant outsider playing upon this grave weakness in the body politic and social, or leads toward the forced assimilation of the weaker minorities by the most powerfully placed group. † (Emmerson, Mills, and Thompson, 1942, p. 144) The establishment of national unity through was essential ingredient in the emergence of democracy. According to Marx (2003), nationalism is an essential prerequisite to democracy, since â€Å"it establishes the boundaries of the community to which citizenship and rights are then accorded, without which democracy is impossible† (p. 31). And the birth of nationalism was related to the political baptism of the lower classes whose empowerment helped bring democracy, with both nationalism and democracy thereby relatively and impressively inclusive (Marx, 2003). While many have witnessed nationalism and democracy going together, for the past few years, nationalism has been largely considered a disruptive force on the prospects for democratization. For one, national unity gives rise to the question of the state and its boundaries, which is believed to be more fundamental than that of regime type and that can disrupt debate about appropriate political forms. Nationalism in this sense is a disruptive force because it gives rise to issues regarding religious beliefs, language, and customs. Moreover, nationalism is largely seen as being potentially disruptive to achieving democratic outcomes since it stimulates mass mobilization which frightens authoritarian rulers, causing them to suppress activities that may stop the progress of the whole process of political change. The argument that nationalism is a disruptive force is validated by the experiences of southern Europe and Latin America. The disintegration of all of the federal Communist states along republican lines adds force to this argument; however, it is not as clear-cut as this in the post-Soviet experience. According to McFaul (2002), ten years after the collapse of communism, only Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are democracies, while the other republics are under regimes that are either facade democracies or nondemocratic. Nationalism was also seen as a disruptive force on the eve of the First World War. It played an important role in the rivalries between superpowers: Germany vs. France (revenge for 1871), Russia, vs. Austria-Hungary (expansion into Balkans), and Germany vs. Great Britain (control of seas, arms race). Nationalism was also a disruptive force regarding the emergence of unsatisfied nationalities: Poles, Irish, Serbs, Czechs, and many others In Poland, following the 1830 uprising, conservatives began to drift away from nationalism. By the 1850s, only few on the right were interested in talking about nationalism, which came to be seen as a dangerous term signifying disruption, disorder, and even revolution (Porter, 2000). Within Poland itself many nobles may have shared the hopes of the Czartoryski circle, but since they could do little to further such a cause, they retreated to apolitical lives (Porter, 2000). Not only were the conservatives uncomfortable with the politics of the patriotic activists, but they found it difficult to speak the language of national romanticism. â€Å"They might appreciate some of the poetry of Mickiewicz or Slowacki, but they soon discovered the disruptive force of the progressive historiosophies to which the concept of the nation had been so firmly linked. † (Porter, 2000, p. 31) References Emerson, R. , Mills, L. A. , and Thompson, V. (1942). Government and Nationalism in Southeast Asia. New York: Institute of Pacific Relations. Kedourie, E. (1993). Nationalism, 4th expanded ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Marx, A. W. (2003). Faith in Nation: Exclusionary Origins of Nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press. McFaul, M. (2002). The Fourth Wave of Democracy and Dictatorship: Noncooperative Transitions in the Postcommunist World. World Politics 54(1), 212-44. Porter, B. (2000). When Nationalism Began to Hate: Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth Century Poland. New York: Oxford University Press. Weeks, W. E. (1994). American Nationalism, American Imperialism: An Interpretation of United States Political Economy, 1789-1861. Journal of the Early Republic, 14, 485-495.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Concepts of Racism and Discrimination

Concepts of Racism and Discrimination Race has been an issue in North America for many years. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva discusses the new racism in his book, Racism without Racists. Bonilla-Silva classifies the new racial discrimination as color blind racism. Color blind racism is then structured under four frames (26). Color blind racism is believed to have lead to the segregation of the white race from other minorities called white habitus. Color blind racism and white habitus has affected many people, whom dont even realize that they are currently affected, have been or will be affected. Color blind racism is an ideology, which acquired cohesiveness and dominance in the late 1960s, explains contemporary racial inequality as the outcome of nonracial dynamics, according to Bonilla-Silva (2). In order to analyze color blind racism, Bonilla-Silva relies mostly on interview data (11) through a 1997 Survey of Social Attitudes of College Students and a 1998 Detroit Area Study (DAS) (12). Bonilla-Silva then breaks down the analysis of color blind racism into four central themes to convey how whites explain a world without racial issues: abstract liberalism, naturalization, cultural racism, and minimization. Abstract liberalism is ideas associated with political liberalism and economic liberalism (28). Abstract liberalism is used for a wide range of issue therefore Bonilla-Silva gives a few different examples of when this frame is used. Rationalizing Racial Unfairness in the Name of Equal Opportunity was used when asking white students if minorities should be provided unique opportunities to be admitted into universities (31). Most whites will state that everyone should have an equal opportunity. Those whites, ignored the effects of past and contemporary discrimination on the social, economic, and educational status of minorities, argues Bonilla-Silva (31). Some of the other views explained are: The Most Qualifiedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦: A Meritocratic Way of Defending White Privilege, Nothing Should be Forced upon People: Keeping Things the Way They Are, and Individual Choice or an Excuse for Racial Unfairness and Racially Based Choices. The reasoning for abstract liberalism usually deals with equal opportunity, choice and individualism as a defense to white privilege (28). In this frame, it says that you cant allow preferential treatment to certain groups to promote racial equality because equal opportunity is available for everyone. This denies that there are any advantages to whites based from history. Cultural racism uses the they dont have it altogether statement (39). The essence of the American version of this frame is blaming the victim, arguing that minorities standing is a product of their lack of effort, loose family organization, and inappropriate values, stated Bonilla-Silva (40). Kara a MU student states, black people that Ive metà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦I dont want to say waiting for a handout, but to some extent, thats kind of what Im like hinting at, when asked what she thought about blacks lacking motivation (40). Other students used a kinder response to the above question leading to a family structure issue, a lack of education, and financially that blacks had to get a job at an earlier age than whites (41). Cultural racism is the basis of most racism today. The blame game is used in all situations. Peoples egos dont like to believe that the problem occurs because of themselves. If it isnt my fault, it must be yours! All of these frames are not solely separate. Each frame can and are intertwined when talking to most of the students. According to Bonilla-Silva, when minimization of racism and cultural racism are mixed, the results are ideologically deadly (40). Minimization of racism is the belief of whites that race is not the concerning issue. Bonilla-Silva analysis the DAS survey response to the question if the students believed that discrimination was currently a problem. The white and the black groups both responded with a high percentage that they disagreed or strongly disagreed (43). Although whites and blacks believe discrimination is still a problem, they dispute its salience as a factor explaining blacks collective standing, states Bonilla-Silva (43). A more through question was then asked to clarify and blacks believed that discrimination was alive and still is alive (43). Minimization explains, simply, that race is no longer a factor. People sometimes state that minorities are too sensitive. Naturalization is the next frame discussed. Bonilla-Silva believes that this frame was used particularly when discussing school or neighborhood matters, to explain the limited contact between whites and minorities, or to rationalize whites preferences for whites as significant others (36). Students would use words such as natural or thats the way it is when using this frame (37). Bonilla-Silva uses segregation questions to show examples of the naturalization frame. The question would ask why people segregate in schools or where they live. Most would respond, its human nature (39) or I dont really think its a segregationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦peopleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦spend time with people that they are like (37). According to Bonilla-Silva, As white neighborhoods develop, white schools follow- an outcome that further contributes to the process of racial isolation (39). This racial isolation Bonilla-Silva calls white habitus. Naturalization says that people self select or are hedonistic but why d o people live in all white or black neighborhoods? This may be due to the long history of segregation or selection of realtors to sell only to a certain ethnicity for a certain area. White habitus is a radicalized, uninterrupted socialization process that conditions and creates whites racial taste, perceptions, feelings, and emotions and their views on racial matters (104). Bonilla-Silva stated, One of the central consequences of the white habitus is that it promotes a sense of group belonging and negative views about non whites (104). Whites interpret segregation as natural or as just the way things are (112). The white race does not have to think about their race because of their dominance. This issue expands when racial segregation occurs. Besides the absence of noticing ones race, white respondents did not seem to see any problems in having an all white neighborhoods. Whites reported being friends with blacks but then later when asked more questions never named a black friend. The research showed that less than 10% of whites actually had black friends even when interracial friendship were available, whites did not cross the color line (108). The impact of white habitus is significant. Racial segregation causes attitudinal, emotional, and political implications (125). Other impacts are the negative effect naturalization and justifications of racial segregation; creates a greater distance between races; lack of empathy and the lack of the reality of colorblind racism (123-125). Colorblind racism affects you, me, and everyone in this world. It is the new racism. Bonilla-Silva states, Color-blind racism forms an impregnable yet elastic ideological wall that barricades whites off from Americas racial reality (181). Not only does it cut white Americans off it allows them to justify what is happening without the harshness of the past (181). Blacks are affected by color blindness, also. They fall within the four frames similar to white but on a smaller scale. Blacks were more direct in their answers but color blind racism had some indirect and direct effects on blacks (172). Color blind racism has shaped some blacks way of thinking about segregation (171). It has allowed some blacks to believe in the culture of poverty concept (172). The struggle against color-blind racism will have to be waged not only against color-blind whites, who cannot see the centrality of race in America, but also against the many slightly color-blind blacks, concluded Bonilla-Silva (172) . In my opinion, the only way to work on the struggle against racial inequality is to continue to talk about it, learn about it, and emphasize the effects of it. Based on the information provided in Bonilla-Silvas book, I can assume that most white are not around to see or hear the racism compared to the minorities that deal with it on a daily basis. Most whites live in primary white neighborhoods so they do not have the opportunity to be aware of racism or sometimes they dont pay attention to it because it doesnt involve them. Sometimes whites say they have black friends but in reality they may have seen black people but never connected with a black person on a friendship level. In order to understand one another and get along, it is important to integrate and learn about each race. Integration of all forms is the key to dissipating racism. The Dynamics of Racial Residential Segregation states, Sociologists and policymaker have long viewed racial residential segregation as a key aspect of racial inequality (Charles, 2003). This article along with many other sociology classes, books, and articles state that segregation is an issue of our past and present. We have made some integration movement since the Apartheid days but this is not enough. We have to level the playing field. If it takes the government getting involved to promoting integrated communities, then I think that is what should be done. People do not like new rules or regulations, so why cant the government promote integration like they promote new federal laws such as the DUI legal limit of .08%. If you move into an integrated community of a certain percent then you will receive a tax cut or some type of benefit. This promotes people to live with other races and eventually it will become second nature . Obviously, the government cannot make those integrated communities communicate but I believe that with time neighbors will start to talk to one another or if nothing else some type of promotion for community block parties, similar to when I was a kid, would assist in the communication process. That is how I remember meeting the neighbors. Community block parties are non-existent now days but I believe they are beneficial to everyone! With a little effort from everyone, we can make it happen, a life without racism!

Friday, September 20, 2019

The impact of globalization in China

The impact of globalization in China Globalization is a widely used term which can be describe or defined in various ways but if we are to describe it in economic terms there are lot of definitions which all bothers down to the same point which is the removal of barriers withing boarders in order for free movement of goods and services How to view Globalization Globalization is the objective trend of economic development in the world today, featured by free flow and optimized allocation of capital, technology, information and service in the global context. It is the inevitable result of the development of productive forces and advances of science and technology, especially the revolution of information technology since the 1980s and 1990s. As a result, economic interdependence and interaction between countries are becoming ever stronger. In this massive tide of economic globalisation, no country can develop and prosper in isolation. China has learnt from her long history that isolation leads to backwardness. Development,progress and prosperity could only be achieved through opening to and integrating with the outside world, through stepping up exchanges and cooperation with other countries and through absorbing all fine results of human civilization. Therefore, we should embrace and seize the opportunities presented by globalization and adopt reforms to keep up with the steps of the changing world. Challenges brought by Globalization Due to the lack of a just and equitable international economic order, the influence of globalization on countries at different stages of development is entirely different. The dividends derived from globalization are not fairly distributed. The developed countries have apparent advantages in capital, technology, human resources and administrative expertise and in setting the rules of the game. They are usually the most active propellers and the biggest beneficiaries of globalization. The developing countries on the other hand are on the whole in an unfavorably position. Developing countries can obtain some foreign investment, advanced technologies and management expertise, but at the same time they are the most vulnerable to the negative impacts of globalization and lack the ability to effectively fend off and reduce the risks and pitfalls that come along with globalization. In the 1990s, especially in recent years, the gap between the North and the South has further widened. The eco nomic sovereignty and economic security of the developing countries are confronted with enormous pressure and stern challenges. Some least-developed countries are even on the brink of being marginalized by globalization. Therefore, in participation of globalization, developing countries should always be on alert and try by all means to exploit the advantages and avoid all kinds of risk and harm. Chinas Experience For China, globalization is often seen as a double-edged sword that brings both opportunities and challenges, advantages and disadvantages. How to turn disadvantages into advantages in the tidal wave of globalization depends on formulating the correct policies and strategies. If the policies are correct, challenges can be turned into opportunities. China has learnt many lessons and accumulated rich experiences in dealing with globalisation from its practice of reform and opening-up. In my personal opinion, they can be summarized as follows: 1. To find a road of development that suits the national conditions. In the past 20-odd years, China has maintained an annual growth rate of over 9.3% on average. China is now the 6th largest economy and the 5th largest trading nation in the world. More than 200 million people have been lifted out of poverty. The average life expectancy reached 71.8 years in 2002, close to that of a medium-level developed country. The above accomplishments were achieved against the backdrop of a volatile international situation. The reason why China can achieve so much in such a short span of time and in a constantly changing international environment is because China has found its own road of development, suitable to its national conditions, namely building socialism with Chinese characteristics. In one word, building socialism with Chinese characteristics is to base what we do on the realities of China. While sticking to the basic system of socialism, reforms should be carried out to solve the prob lems of incompatibility between the productive forces and the relations of production, and between economic base and the superstructure, so as to achieve self-perfection of socialism. Every country is different from the other. While it is important to learn from other countries in the world, no country should simply copy other countries model. 2. To adopt opening-up policy. Chinas opening to the outside world is comprehensive. It opens not only to developed countries, but also to developing countries, not only in economic field, but also in all areas of social development. At the same time, it is not a blind opening, but a self-conscious one, not a disorganized opening but a systematic one. Chinas opening proceeds and deepens in a gradual and step by step fashion. It started from the 4 special economic zones, to coastal cities, then to capital cities of inland provinces and now it has reached an unprecedented stage of all-round opening demonstrated by Chinas accession to the World Trade Organization. During its opening-up, China paid special attention to give full play to its comparative advantages to actively conduct international cooperation and competition. For instance, China has fully exploited its advantages of low cost of labour to attract foreign investment and technology to push economic development and better eff iciency and quality of economic growth. These measures have brought the Chinese economy increasingly integrated with the world economy. 3. To promote regional cooperation for better risk-resistance ability. Due to weakness in economic strength, its difficult for developing countries to resist the risk brought about by globalization on their own. Therefore, they should, through strengthening regional economic cooperation, rely on group strength to stand risks. Today, regional and sub-regional cooperation is becoming increasingly active. They complement and correlate with the trend of globalization. China has signed the Framework Agreement with ASEAN on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation with the aim of establishing China-ASEAN Free Trade Zone in 2010. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization is also forging closer economic links alongside with cooperation in security issues. Strengthening cross-Taiwan straits economic links conforms to the pattern of economic development, serves the overall interests of the Chinese nation and complies with the trend of globalization. To set obstacle to this trend is unwise and is bound to fail. More than 3 million people travelled across the Taiwan Straits, with the two-way trade reaching 44.6 billion US dollars in 2002, an increase of 38% over the previous year. More than 60,000 Taiwan enterprises have invested in the mainland. By the end of 2002, the accumulated cross-straits trade was 267.9 billion US dollars, among which Taiwan enjoys a trade surplus of 182.6 billion US dollars. Now Taiwan is mainlands 4th largest trading partner. The mainland is Taiwans largest export destination and the biggest source of trade surplus. With regard to Hong Kong, more than 50% of foreign investment China has attracted so far comes through Hong Kong. The above figures have clearly attested to a growing economic interdependence between the mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan. We strongly hope that the Taiwan authorities can have a clear understanding of the situation and does not move against the tide of history. 4. To be vigilant against various risks, especially financial risks. The Asian financial crisis in 1997 has clearly been a microcosm of the challenges and dangers involved in economic globalization. When the crisis swept Asian countries, China adopted a responsible approach. China not only persisted not to devalue its own currency, but also contributed more than US$ 4 billion through bilateral and multi-lateral channels to help the affected countries. This has helped to stabilize the financial situation in Asia as well as the world. Many lessons could be drawn from this crisis. Developing countries have to pay special attention to the restructuring and strengthening of their financial system. Developing countries should keep the destiny of their economy in their own hands and should not lose the grip to others. 5. To push for the establishment of a new international economic order which is just and rational. A globalized economy calls for globalized regulation and cooperation. All countries, big or small, poor or rich, strong or weak, should have the right of equal participation in international economic affairs, and the formulation and revision of rule of the game should not be determined by only a small number of countries or groups of countries. To establish a fair and rational international economic order is the only way to ensure that the benefits of globalization are shared more widely and equitably. The new order should uphold the principle of equality and mutual benefit and common development. It should be conducive to narrow the gap between the North and South so as to make it possible for the trend of economic globalization to evolve in the direction favorable to the common prosperity of mankind. The United Nations Report on Human Development shows that the trend of globalization has made the poor poorer and the rich richer. If such a situation were to continue, not only the economic development of the developing countries would be in jeopardy, the economies of the developed countries would also face difficulties in achieving a steady and sustainable growth. In the process of globalization, the developed countries should assume more responsibilities in such fields as restraining the speculative factors in international capital flow, alleviating the debt burden of poor countries, opening the markets and furthering technology transfer to help the economic development of developing countries. In return, they will enjoy more markets and investment opportunities to ensure long-term prosperity. It is indeed a win-win situation which is best testified by the case of China. Chinas Contribution to World Economy Chinas participation in Globalization is by no means a one-way street. When the world economic growth remains weak, Chinas economy is one of the few bright spots. As World Bank Report on Global Development Finance 2003 published in early April pointed out that Chinas fast growth helped to drive the recovery in East Asia. Together with policy stimulus in other countries, Chinas performance lifted the region to growth of 6.7 % in 2002, up from 5.5% in 2001. Average regional growth of more than 6% is expected for the next two years, with China increasingly becoming the engine of the regional economy. China has also provided the world with the largest rising market. When more than 1.25 billion people become well-off, the demand on everything will be enormous. Just to give you an example, in the coming 10 years alone, China will import US$ 2 trillion of goods from the outside world. A recent article in the Economist highlighted the benefits brought by Chinas growth: Millions of consumers in other countries are gaining from the low prices and high quality of Chinese goods. A billion Chinese are escaping the dire poverty of the past. Business across the globe will profit from supplying a vast new market. These are wonders to be celebrated, not threats to be agonized over. . China (SMEs) And The Internationalization Process of Chinese Enterpreneurs Chinese privately owned, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are rapidly internationalizing, yet little research has been reported about how these entrepreneurs manage decisions during internationalization. This study investigates how social networks (guanxi) are used when making strategic, competitive, and marketing decisions. Interviews in China with a small sample of SME entrepreneurs revealed that cultural and ethnic factors play a surprisingly important role in their successful internationalization. In the article, we discuss managerial implications for successful internationalization of Chinese entrepreneurs, we question the completeness of current theories on the internationalization process, and we propose specific directions for future research.  © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Little scholarly research has been conducted on how Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) undertake internationalization. This is surprising when one considers the very significant contributions made by SMEs to national economic growth in China in recent years. For example, 2.2 million fully private enterprises were operating in China in 2002, accounting for U.S. $200 billion in investment and employing 29.3 million people (Peoples Daily, 2002). By 2004, the nonpublic sector accounted for 53 percent of total employment, up from only 17 percent in 1995 (Demurger, Fournier, Shi, Zhong, 2007). In 2005, approximately 50 percent of Chinas GDP was the result of activity in the private sector (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2006), and this was forecast by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences to rise to more than 75 percent in the next five years (Peoples Daily, 2006). Similarly, RTTNews (2006) has predicted that 70 percent of all Chinese enterprises will eventually belong to the private sector, creating eight out of ten new nonagricultural jobs. By 2007, registered capital in the Chinese private sector was valued at 10.1 trillion yuan (approximately U.S. $1.42 trillion), growing at an annual rate of 22.7 percent (Xinhua News Agency, 2008). Indicators such as these demonstrate that Chinese entrepreneurs play a key role in the national economy, and many aim to become a force in the global marketplace through internationalization (I. H. Chow, 2000; Humphreys, 2007). The goal of this study is to understand how Chinese entrepreneurs in SMEs are using their social networks to internationalize their operations. (Hereafter, we refer to social networks interchangeably as guanxi, following Zhou, Wu, Luo, 2007.) A basic premise is the recognition that factors in any sociocultural and business environment will directly affect the behavior, performance, and success of local entrepreneurs (Kim, Hurh, Fernandez, 1989). This is particularly true in China, where social networking through guanxi has been found to determine success not only in business activities, but also in industrialization and modernization (Hutchings Weir, 2006). Three researc h questions guide this study: What motivates Chinese entrepreneurs to undertake internationalization? What paths do Chinese entrepreneurs take toward internationalization? what role do culture and social networks (guanxi) play in Chinese SMEentrepreneurs path of internationalization? 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online in Wiley InterScience ( Global Business and Organizational Excellence à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ DOI: 10.1002/joe.20299 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ November/December 2009 61 The first two questions relate to microlevel issues and decisions involving entrepreneurs themselves, whereas the third question links these decisions conceptually to elements in the broader social context of the Chinesemarket.We expect to find that guanxi plays a significant, if not critical, role in any internationalization efforts by Chinese entrepreneurs. We first present a brief economic profile of the Chinese market in order to characterize local conditions in which Chinese SME entrepreneurs undertake nternationalization. Next, we review relevant contributions to the literature in order to establish a theoretical basis for developing an interview protocol for use in personal interviews with entrepreneurs in China. Our research method is described in detail before results are presented and compared to previous findings reported in the literature. This closedloop approach is a key feature of the study because it ensures that our results do not remain merely anecdotal but are fully integrated into the existing body of knowledge. Then we explore managerial implications, acknowledge limitations of the study, and outline specific avenues for further research. This is a pioneering analysis of cultural factors affecting internationalization of Chinese entrepreneurs. Findings from this exploratory research will lead us to conclude that current theories of internationalization do not adequately reflect the actual experience of Chinese entrepreneurs who use guanxi f or internationalization. This is a key contribution of the article and is supported by an urgent call for scholars to re-examine established theories in light of the new realities of internationalization, as the process is being experienced in China. The Chinese Economy and Chinese Entrepreneurs in SMEs By the late 1970s, Lester (1978) had already recognized that the entrepreneurial orientation of Chinese people would become a source of real strength for the national economy. Wei, Varela, and Hassan (2002) reinforced this early prediction, suggesting that Chinese privatization would bring about the largest transformation of industrial ownership in modern history. Their results confirmed that newly privatized Chinese firms achieve higher profitability, greater levels of employment, and better sales efficiency than state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Although SOEs still vastly outnumber private firms, their performance has been hampered by a complex burden of massive debts, inefficient or ganization and operation, and lost profits. Since the early 1980s, Chinas private sector has grown at an annual rate of 20 percent, which is a much faster rate than the 9.5 percent rate of growth for the national economy over the last 20 years (Peoples Daily, 2002). All these successes led Child and Tse (2001, p. 5) to characterize China as the largest, the fastest growing, and the most heavily engaged in international business and investment among transitional economies. Although SOEs still vastly outnumber private firms, their performance has been hampered by a complex burden of massive debts, inefficient organization and operation, and lost profits. It is ironic, however, that, prior to 1999, the Chinese government had barred entrepreneurs from operating directly in foreign trade, only authorizing them to conduct international business through intermediary SOEs. Financing options were also tightly restricted, which seriously hindered the growth of SMEs. Fortunately, after January 1, 1999, private firms were allowed to seek import and export licenses from the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation of China (2002). After China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, private firms were permitted to trade freely and directly with foreign companies, if they satisfied certain conditions (such as registration, size, and financial competency). Economic liberalization released much pent-up energy among entrepreneurs in SMEs, 62 November/December 2009 DOI: 10.1002/joe Global Business and Organizational Excellence including a desire to internationalize, as this study will demonstrate The Internationalization Process Internationalization of the firm is customarily regarded as a process of successive stages of outward expansion by the firm (see Cavusgil, 1980; Johanson Vahlne, 1977; Turnbull, 1981; Wind, Douglas, Perlmutter, 1973). It is also seen as a continuous process of strategic decision making (Melin, 1992), with emphasis on international market selection and choice of mode of entry (Bradley, 1995). This process takes place in a gradual and orderly manner, incorporating learning from domestic market growth, which, in turn, provides experience useful in future xport activities (Cavusgil, 1982). Two integrative theoretical models are widely accepted as explaining critical components of the internationalization process. These are Rogerss (1962) innovation-related model (designated as the I-model) and the Uppsala Schools model (the U-model). Both the U-model and the I-model are behaviorally oriented, insofar as managers are assumed to take decisions and actions sequentially as they gain new in formation and assimilate new experience. Each theory is related to the present study in the next two sections. The I-Model and Chinese SMEs Internationalization Process. Rogerss (1962) I-model framed the decision to go international as an innovation for the firm, drawing attention to a necessary learning sequence that is involved in adopting any innovation (see Anderson, 1993). Managers typically need large amounts of information, both to compensate for lack of prior knowledge or experience and to educe the high levels of uncertainty routinely associated with large-scale innovation (such as internationalization). Managers typically need large amounts of information, both to compensate for lack of prior knowledge or experience and to reduce the high levels of uncertainty routinely associated with large-scale innovation (such as internationalization). In the case of Chinese entrepreneurs, we expect them to turn instinctively to their social networks (guanxi) as sources of information. We expect them to rely heavily on colleagues, friends, and business contacts for advice about how to handle the risk of internationalization, obtain necessary information, make informed decisions, and plan effectively for further expansion. The U-Model and Chinese SMEs Internationalization Process. The Uppsala Schools U-model, developed by Johanson and iedersheim-Paul (1975), distinguishes four successive phases of market entry: (1) no regular export activities; (2) exporting through independent agents; (3) use of an overseas sales subsidiary; and (4) creation of overseas production manufacturing units. This model posits two constructs: state and change. Market commitment and market knowledge are components of the state construct, while decisions to commit resources and current business performance are components of change. Researchers at the Uppsala School also identified psychic distance (PD), referring to perceived similarities and differences in culture, political systems, educ ation, and industrial progress between the home country of firm managers and the proposed market of entry (Hallen Wiedersheim-Paul, 1984). Global Business and Organizational Excellence DOI: 10.1002/joe November/December 2009 63 PD theory holds that managers are less likely to enter country markets that they perceive to be dissimilar from their home market (Jain, 1989; Johanson Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). Based on this model, we developed some general expectations about how Chinese entrepreneurs in SMEs approach the decision to internationalize operations, choose which country markets to target first, determine how they feel about these markets (in terms of PD), make decisions about modes of market entry, type and quantity of resources to commit to the new venture, and how to manage future expansion. Factors Affecting Internationalization by Chinese Entrepreneurs Participants in our sample identified a range of unique and inimitable competitive advantages that flow from their human capital and organizational capital resources. These include membership in extensive domestic social and business networks; access to overseas Chinese networks and contacts; access to timely business advice about competitive strategies; and access to market information based on real-life experience. In this respect, factors relating to country of origin convey special advantages to Chinese entrepreneurs when going international. From a competitive point of view, Chinese entrepreneurs need to exploit these unique resources to the fullest extent possible because comparable benefits are not typically available to their competitors from the West. In other words, SMEs that are not owned or managed by ethnic Chinese may find themselves at a competitive disadvantage by not having access to these types of unique resources. Some of the factors for successful internationaliza tion by Chinese entrepreneurs in SMEs identified in this study can therefore be summarized as follows:Chinese entrepreneurs who enter geographically close export markets can use their home base in china as a source of supply.Chinese entrepreneurs who expand into culturally or geographically distant markets can reduce the negative effects of perceived psychic distance or actual geographic distance through the support that they receive from guanxi members at home and abroad. Chinese entrepreneurs who enter culturally close ethnic Chinese markets, even at great geographic distance, can continue to build social networks, accumulating further resources of human and organizational capital.Chinese entrepreneurs who expand into culturally or geographically distant markets can reduce the negative effects of perceived psychic distance or actual geographic distance through the support that they receive from guanxi members at home and abroad. Thus, we recommend that Chinese entrepreneurial SMEs : make full and continuing use of social networks when considering, initiating, and pursuing internationalization activities; make full and continuing use of social networks as sources of general business information, market-specific knowledge and advice, and insights about competitive strategies;continue to expand social networks domestically and internationally through contacts with overseas Chinese in geographically distant markets. Opportunities for Partnering With Chinese Entrepreneurs in SMEs Chinas economy has enjoyed many years of highlevelg rowth, and its domestic market has proven to be a magnet for direct investment by foreign companies. Large Chinese companies and SOEs alike have benefited from working with foreign partners in their home market, thereby accelerating their learning curve for doing business overseas. Yet it is the private sector in China that is expected to be theengine of future economic growth, and SMEs, for their part, will play an increasingly important role as global competitors. Chinas economy has enjoyed many years of highlevel growth, and its domestic market has proven to be a magnet for direct investment by foreign companies. Many Chinese entrepreneurs who own or manage SMEs are increasingly determined to enter overseas markets, as illustrated by members of our sample. Foreign companies looking to enter China must therefore actively consider how they might work with this new type of partner. Joint ventures that manufactu re products in China for export to world markets will offer some valuable reciprocal benefits: accelerated learning for the Chinese entrepreneur, balanced by the possibility of eventual assimilation of the foreign partner into a Chinese social network. Good guanxi with Chinese partners will doubtless yield tremendous long-term strategic and competitive benefits for foreign partners. Not only will they gain access to domestic market segments in China, but they will also be able to build competitive advantage, as insiders in social networks. Contributions and Future Research Contributions This study provides interesting and even surprising qualitative insights into the actual experience of Chinese entrepreneurs who are managing international decisions. Throughout the article, we have discussed our results by reference to results from earlier research and existing theoretical constructs. Our findings have generally supported previous results, confirming the value of dominant theories s uch as internationalization; the resource-based view of the firm; resource availability; sources, types, and uses of information; development of global strategy; modes of market entry; and selection of target markets. Less support has been found for application of theories about born global firms and asset-seeking behavior. Based on this study, we conclude that guanxi must be recognized as a sine qua non factor in the process of internationalization of entrepreneurial Chinese SMEs. Guanxi represents a unique and inimitable competitive resource that combines elements of human and organizational capital. This being the case, it appears unavoidable that any generalized theory of the internationalization process must recognize and include a social network construct. Yet this is not the case at the moment, insofar as the I-Model and U-Model theories are concerned. As a consequence, we consider that the main contribution of this exploratory and pioneering study is to call into question th e completeness of current theories of internationalization. Our evidence, albeit modest, suggests that none of these theories yet adequately identifies and includes all factors affecting the internationalization process for firms beyond those of Western Europe and North America. This shortcoming is particularly evident in the case of the internationalization of small and medium-sized Chinese entrepreneurial firms. Our concern about shortcomings of current internationalization theory has received recent support from Elango and Pattnaik (2007). Their study of Indian firms membership in business groups concludes that . . . certain assumptions and notions of the Uppsala model (i.e., deterministic sequential stages, commitment, state/change variables) need to be extended to incorporate the confluences of Global Business and Organizational Excellence DOI: 10.1002/joe November/December 2009 73 these linkages within a firms network (Elango Pattnaik, 2007, p. 551). In addition, these author s propose a theoretical link between network membership and an improved ability to reduce the liabilities of foreignness (mentioned earlier) through shared learning by members of the network. For our part, we would argue that other important theories mentioned in this article, such as membership in large business groups, social embeddedness, and absorptive capacity, also need to be properly integrated into any general theory of internationalization. The need for further work is all the more urgent as we see new firms (such as Chinese SMEs) entering international markets from their home base in emerging economies. The unique competitive advantages associated with guanxi make it possible, despite limited company resources, for Chinese SMEs to select, enter, and compete in geographically distant markets (such as Canada and South Africa) in a way that current theory would not predict. Furthermore, our findings call attention to the shortcomings of psychic distance theory. The unique com petitive advantages associated with guanxi make it possible, despite limited company resources, for Chinese SMEs to select, enter, and compete in geographically distant markets (such as Canada and South Africa) in a way that current theory would not predict. Moreover, PD theory does not adequately encompass the workings of guanxi, either as a compensatory factor for lack of market knowledge and prior experience or as a means of reducing uncertainty in decision making. Elango and Pattnaik (2007) concur with our conclusion, stating that further research is needed into how members of networks and business groups choose their overseas customers and markets, and how they build global market portfolios. A theoretical missing link here appears to be the unseen workings of guanxi and business networks. Finally, we would argue that learning theory needs to be revisited in the context of the internationalization of the firm. Social networks must be properly recognized as primary sources of in formation, rapid learning, and vicarious knowledge. Once again, we are supported by Elango and Pattnaik (2007, p. 552), who recommend that future researchers may want to look into how firms within and network transfer learning (i.e., internationalization knowledge: Eriksson et al., 1997) to other members. . . [because] it is still not evident what formal or informal mechanisms are used for transfer of learning (emphases added). Blueprint for Future Development The first 10 to 20 years of this century

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Beauty is More Than Skin Deep: Depictions of Aging Women in Ancient Egy

Beauty is More Than Skin Deep: Depictions of Aging Women in Ancient Egyptian Art In Ancient Egypt, women are typically shown as youthful and beautiful while more mature, older women are very rarely depicted. For men of the time, ageing is shown in art more frequently because it was a positive aspect of manhood. For ancient Egyptians, art wasn’t just made for pleasure or beauty; it was a very practical and necessary part of the day-to-day lives of the Egyptians. In art, Egyptian belief was that people needed to be depicted at their peak of energy and beauty in order to remain that way forever when they cross over into the afterlife. In most ancient Egyptian art, male ageing is represented more frequently than women since it was considered a positive image for men. Egyptian art seldom depicted older women or women growing older: "neither pregnancy nor the spreading waistline that many women must have had after years of bearing children is part of the image." However, there are examples that feature elements of ageing that are linked to elite and non-elite women alike. These demonstrations of older women are possibly an attempt to outwardly show on women the authority and honor in the same way the image of male ageing is represented. Though it is rarely depicted, we can use art to trace the portrayal of older women and women growing older in Egypt, from the Third Dynasty down to the end of the New Kingdom. As women age, their bodies change in various ways such as the development of wrinkles and white hair. However, Egyptian art did not necessarily combine these features in a consistent, fixed order when they show women as they grew older. This may reflect the reality of the ageing process: people do not always age in the sa... .... Pharaohs of the sun: Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Tutankhamen. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts in association with Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown and Co., 1999. Lesko, Barbara, "Queen Khamerernebty II and Her Sculpture," in Ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Studies, (Providence, Rhode Island, 1998), 158. Moussa, Ahmed M., and Hartwig Altenmller, The Tomb of Nefer and Ka-Hay (Mainz, 1971), pg. 33. Robins, Gay. Women in ancient Egypt. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993. 180. Robins, Gay. While the Woman Looks On: Gender inequality in the New Kingdom. KMT 1/3 (1990), 21. Roth, Ann Macy, "Father Earth, Mother Sky: Ancient Egyptian Beliefs about Conception and Fertility,"194-96 Toivari-Viitala, J. Women at Deir el-Medina. A Study of the Status and Roles of the Female Inhabitants in the Workmen's Community during the Ramesside Period. Leiden, 2001.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Sex in Othello and Hamlet Essay -- Sex Gender Feminine Essays

Sex debases men. They begin to struggle when they feel they are losing control of their emotions in any way. For a woman to easily change the way a man feels or the way he acts just by being female and attractive is enough to drive men insane. William Shakespeare's plays, Othello and Hamlet, demonstrate on paper, on film, and in other art forms that female sexuality and beauty are a threat to patriarchal society and that they must be controlled. Showalter affirms this in her essay by quoting David Laverenze's essay, "The Woman in Hamlet." In this essay he asserts that, " Hamlet's disgust at the feminine passivity in himself translated into violent revulsion against women and into his brutal behavior toward Ophelia" (Showalter 222). As men begin to see feminine aspects within themselves they will go to great lengths to not only deny, but also control these undesirable changes. Shakespeare's two plays are a direct commentary of the male insecurity that exists within relationships. Shakespeare's message concerning the male preoccupation with masculinity and their resulting fear of feminine sexuality has been portrayed in film, photography, and drawings. The way the women are represented in each genre clearly demonstrates the power of female sexuality. Though separate in style, each artwork clearly shows how the men of the play see the women as sexual powerhouses. The other genres help to reinforce my analysis of the text. In film we can watch hamlet's facial expressions as he reacts to Ophelia's obvious pull over his emotions. Every picture is taken for a reason in photography. Through each frame we are able to analyze the split second of action the photographer intended to capture. Here we are able to see an emotion or movement w... ...he become and the deeper into his insecurity he falls. Shakespeare's plays, the movies of his plays, and representations of his women through art all work together to create this great social commentary on men in relationships. The plays are obviously extreme since every man who is in love does not kill his lover. The point of the extremity however, is to reveal the gap that may otherwise go unnoticed. Desdemona and Ophelia are far from role models for women. They die and we do not want that. Once again, however their cases are extreme. We learn from them that acting blind to your lover's issues is not what we should strive to achieve. Rather, we should work together to make our sexuality a less foreign object to men. The more comfortable they are with it, the less intimidating it will seem and the more enjoyable it will be for both participants in the relationship.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Advertising Paragraph Tenth Essay

Advertising is one of the best ways to get consumers’ attention. When the ad is spiced up with handsome men and beautiful women enjoying the great outdoors, people are likely to take a look at the ad, thinking it may be for a nice vacation or possibly for something healthy, but to the consumers’ surprise, it’s an ad for â€Å"Newport† cigarettes. How does this affect the audience? By creating an environment on the ad that is bright, lively and colorful, along with attractive men and women, it really gets the consumer’s attention well. The cigarette companies have used this strategy for years to reach their audiences, and the â€Å"Newport† ad is no different. The advertisement for â€Å"Newport† brand cigarettes does a good job of getting the consumers’ attention and even selling cigarettes in general, but when it comes to the advertisement of its own brand, the ad really lacks effectiveness. Looking at the picture, the only par t of the ad that sells the â€Å"Newport† brand are the three small packs of cigarettes in the top right corner and the word â€Å"Newport.† Everything else in the picture is just for getting the consumers’ attention. The main target audiences for this product are most likely avid male smokers, however, the ad can be geared towards both sexes. By showing the man running in front of the woman with the boogie board, he becomes the focal point. When looking at the picture, with the three packs of cigarettes and the text â€Å"pleasure† sitting directly above the man’s head along with the phrase â€Å"fire it up† pointing directly to the male, really shows how much more attention they want on or even from males. Also, by matching the colors of the man’s bathing suit, boogie board and the text, shows that the ad is more interested in helping the consumer focus on the man rather than the woman. It is because of these points that the ad fails to sell the â€Å"Newport† brand to both sexes. Another reason this ad fails to sell its product well is because it seems they put more attention i nto the picture, its surroundings and exaggerations, rather than the actual product â€Å"Newport† cigarettes. It seems they are depicting that even when the consumer smokes cigarettes, he or she can have a sexy, toned, muscular body and feel great all the time. This obviously is not true, considering that cigarettes contribute to weight gain, loss of respiratory stamina and many forms of cancer. Along with these disadvantages come stained teeth and bad breath, which all accompany the true criteria of an  everyday smoker. One of the most interesting selling points in this picture are the words â€Å"fire it up† posted right above the surgeon general’s warning. Positioning these words above the warning is a gross example of how much the cigarette companies don’t care about the negative effects their cigarettes have on their customers. Knowing that their product kills hundreds of thousands of people a year and permanently disables thousands of others, their decision to place this phrase above such a serious warning tells me that they want to convince the consumer to completely disregard how unsafe cigarettes really are. Also, the fact that the phrase â€Å"fire it up† does not include any information about the â€Å"Newport† brand cigarette itself also shows that the company really failed to sell its own brand. For an avid male smoker such as my-self, this ad does what it is intended to do. It makes us think to ourselves, â€Å"man, I could really go for a cigarette.† The ad does this well by setting a trigger off inside the consumer’s head, to start thinking about cigarettes. Unfortunately, when it comes to the advertisement selling its own brand, the ad really falls short, since the company producing the ad put more money into making the advertisement visually appealing rather than focusing on selling their own brand. In the future, it would be more advantageous for the company, if they focused more on integrating the specific benefits of using their brand over others, rather than creating an â€Å"eye pleasing† advertisement.

Monday, September 16, 2019

The Express Transportation And Logistics Industry Commerce Essay

Using illustrations from FedEx Corporation and your ain research on the Global Transportation and Logistics Industry, critically evaluate the: Strategic Vision and airy Leadership behind FedEx Corporation Federal Express is a planetary express transit and logistics company that offers clients a individual beginning for planetary transportation, logistics, and supply concatenation solutions. It was founded in 1973 by Frederick W. Smith. Since its origin FedEx pioneered the express bringing industry. The company focused on the nucleus concern of express bringing and provided nightlong bringing services to the clients globally. However, the transmutation of concerns and clients from old economic system to the new economic system forced FedEx to shift itself from ‘overnight bringing service ‘ to a ‘one-stop-shop ‘ for the full logistics demand of the concern. The company became the logistics service supplier of taking organisations, like, General Motors.Background:During the late sixtiess, Frederick Smith ( Smith ) chanced upon an thought to get down an air hose messenger company. During this period, it was common pattern to direct bundles as lading on commercial b earers like American, United or Delta Airlines. This pattern had a figure of drawbacks because rider air hoses normally operated during the daylight and were grounded at dark. In add-on, cargo forwarders ( the company responsible for transporting the bundles from the airdrome to the finish reference ) normally did non offer place bringing. Smith felt the demand to get down an air hose messenger company that would turn to all these jobs. During his college old ages, he recognized that the United States was going a service-oriented economic system and needed a dependable, nightlong bringing service company designed to entirely transport bundles and paperss. He wrote a Yale term paper on this thought, and received ‘C ‘ class. His professor thought it would ne'er work. Fortunately for Frederick Smith, he did n't take it to bosom and ended up edifice that company he dreamed of.Smith found investors willing to lend $ 40 million, used $ 8 million in household money, and receive d bank funding. He started Federal Express with over $ 80 million, doing it the largest company of its clip of all time funded by venture capital. In the last 36 old ages, FedEx has expanded horizontally with its five subordinates to include FedEx Express ( once Federal Express ) , FedEx Ground ( once Roadway Package System ) , FedEx Custom Critical ( once Roberts Express ) , FedEx Logistics ( once Caliber Logistics ) , and Viking Freight. As a consequence, the FedEx household has been able to vie jointly in the express transit and logistics industries. FedEx ‘s scheme is to confirm on merchandising and synergisms for all FedEx companies, but run operations individually and maintain each company ‘s strengths and markets separate. Today, services offered by FedEx include worldwide express bringing, land small-parcel bringing, less-than-truckload cargo bringing, and planetary logistics, supply concatenation direction, and electronic commercialism solutions. Federal Express is the universe ‘s largest bundle bringing company today. FedEx began its ‘ operations with the exclusive focal point of bettering client cleavage, pricing and quality of services for the nightlong bringing market in the United States. Since so, it has grown to supply taking papers and cargo services for the full North America and for over 212 states abroad. Federal Express Corporation had the airy leading to go the first mover in the express transit and logistics industry go forthing FedEx with one beginning of distinction: their ability to assist in the control of the full supply concatenation direction. FedEx Firsts†¦ Company dedicated to nightlong bundle bringing Offer next-day bringing by 10h30 Offer Saturday bringings Offer a clip unequivocal service for cargo Money-back warrants and free cogent evidence of public presentation services that now extend to its worldwide web The company ‘s ability to utilize engineering and make its ain supply of resources has made it hard for rivals to fit the company ‘s criterions for service.FedEx has been successful chiefly because of their technological promotions. Technology has allowed them to hold superior client service and quality that was unparalleled by any company. No company was able to offer nightlong bringing of bundles with the velocity and preciseness that Federal Express did. FedEx ‘s mold capableness gave them a competitory advantage as they implemented new methods and engineering. They presently have a SuperHub with several regional hubs and bundles are managed and tracked by a system called COSMOS. COSMOS – Customers, Operations and Services Master Online System, a centralized computing machine system to pull off people, bundles, vehicles and conditions scenarios in existent clip. This system allowed clients to cognize where their bundles are at all times and was subsequently integrated for web usage, leting clients to track bundles over the Internet. In add-on, the customized bringing service of the company is alone in the market. Mission Statement The Mission Statement of FedEx is â€Å" to bring forth superior fiscal returns for shareholders, by supplying high value-added logistics, transit and related information services through focussed operating companies. Customer demands will be met in the highest quality mode appropriate to each market section served. FedEx will endeavor to develop reciprocally honoring relationships with its employees, spouses and providers. Safety will be the first consideration in all operations. Corporate activities will be conducted to the highest ethical and professional criterions † . This mission statement shows that FedEx has a clear focal point. ( 1 ) The chief focal point is to convey returns to shareholders. ( 2 ) They will stress adding value above and beyond merely their service of transporting an object from one topographic point to another. ( 3 ) Their focal point of operations will be logistics, transit, and related information. This mission statement is focused plenty to maintain FedEx from diversifying into for illustration, nutrient merchandises ; yet obscure plenty to let growing in all of those countries. A Doctrine Federal Express holds a People-Service-Profit doctrine. The ‘People ‘ end is the uninterrupted betterment of direction ‘s leading. The ‘Service ‘ criterion is 100 per centum client satisfaction. The ‘Profit ‘ end is much like any other company ‘s end, and is indispensable to long-run viability. This doctrine governs how FedEx runs its concern, and defines schemes. Federal Express Five-Point Strategy Federal Express has five schemes that govern concern tactics. These are to better service degrees, lower unit costs, set up international leading and sustain profitableness, acquire closer to the client, and keep the People-Service-Profit Philosophy. The alone FedEx runing scheme works seamlessly – and at the same time – on three degrees. Compete collectivelyA by standing as one trade name worldwide and talking with one voice. Operate independentlyA by concentrating on our independent webs to run into distinguishable client demands. Manage collaborativelyA by working together to prolong loyal relationships with our work force, clients and investors. Valuess Peoples: We value our people and promote diverseness in our workplace and in our thought. Service: Our perfectly, positively spirit puts our clients at the bosom of everything we do. Invention: We invent and inspire the services and engineerings that improve the manner we work and live. Integrity: We manage our operations, fundss and services with honestness, efficiency and dependability. Duty: We champion safe and healthy environments for the communities in which we live and work. Loyalty: We earn the regard and assurance of our FedEx people, clients and investors every twenty-four hours, in everything we do Transportation system and logistics substructure within FedEx Corporation FedEx started its operation by directing eight bundles on the first dark, of which 7 were test tally addresses from one employee to another. The company has since grown to managing an amazing 9.8 million cargos per twenty-four hours. An overview of FedEx ‘s Infrastructure: Managing 9.8 million cargos per twenty-four hours More than 700 aero planes, Daily lift capacity of 12 million kgs Servicing more than 220 states through 375 airdromes Work force of more than 140,000 lasting employees worldwide 500,000 calls are dealt with professionally With this Infrastructure and new 1s being added over clip, the Purple Promise of â€Å" I will do every FedEx experience outstanding † is achieved with the aggregation and bringing of each cargo. Physical goods when transported over trucks on a main road normally travel the most frequented paths. But as more vehicles start tracking that main road, and as the trips become longer, bundles get delayed, travel astray, arrive spoiled, or do n't get at all. To work out this job, faster, more attentive bearers with their ain hardware and substructure came into being: FedEx, UPS, Airborne Express, and so on. These new bearers pay attending to rush, tracking, charge, quality of service and mechanization. They besides devised systems that did n't go through the center of town, except for concluding bringing, and did n't alter custodies en path. And eventually, they offered tonss of optional services to do life easier for both shipper and receiver.Home bringing substructure:As portion of Infrastructure enlargement programs of its U.S. bringing web, FedEx Corp. will add another 9 distribution hubs, conveying its entire figure of hubs to 39. In add-on, a new home-delivery installation pla nned for Florida will be able to treat more than 10,000 bundles per hr. The three hubs that are under building are in Dallas, Cincinnati and Hagerstown, MD, the 4th hub in Memphis, TN. The hub enlargement undertaking will besides spread out the 30 bing hubs ; this will about duplicate the company ‘s mean day-to-day hub bundle volume capacity by the terminal of its 2010 financial twelvemonth. The enlargement undertaking will back up a crisp growing in FedEx ‘s cargos to consumers on behalf of on-line retail merchants. The new Florida orbiter distribution centre, in Pompano Beach near Fort Lauderdale, will be three times the size of the two bing installations combined, and will open with a work force of about 356 employees and independent contractors, an addition from the current combined figure of 200 employees and independent contractors. FedEx Smart Post ‘s best-of-breed engineering ensures fleet bundle processing and bringing. This engineering provides shipment visibleness throughout the bringing procedure of the bundles while they are en path to their finishs. This enables to cognize ever where the bundles are and where they ‘re traveling following. Advanced control systems, sophisticated automated sorters, and state-of-the-art data-collection devices enable FedEx to roll up elaborate information about every bundle. And the extremely adept logistics squad is to the full equipped to screen 100s of 1000s of bundles each twenty-four hours. The client tools are housed on a secure Web site, customized to run into the alone demands of each client. These tools provide seasonably entree to box bringing information, logistics analysis, manifest item, and charge statements, every bit good as the ability to make necessary studies needed in be aftering the bundle bringing scheme. As a leader in the bundle bringing industry, FedEx provides with informations and coverage needed to analyze and heighten logistics operations on an on-going footing. Virtual information substructure at FedEx Corporation. Though FedEx began as an express air bringing company in the early 1970s, it has successfully transformed itself into an integrated transit and logistics service supplier. A major portion of FedEx ‘s success is straight attributed to its committed usage of information engineering ( IT ) . IT has non merely facilitated its concern procedures like operations, client service and employee preparation but besides integrated its information web with that of its clients to supply them with seamless logistic and supply concatenation solutions. Dennis Jones, former Chief Information Officer ( CIO ) of FedEx says – â€Å" IT ( information engineering ) is a map that has a strategic value because the kernel of our concern is taking a basic service and adding information engineering services to transform into a value added merchandise. And that is really of import. Any company can travel freight from point A to point B. But the manner you make it a valuable merchandise to your client is to wrap it with intensive information engineering capablenesss † .Leveraging Information TechnologyIn the late seventiess, FedEx saw a great benefit in utilizing IT to simplify its concern procedures. Smith had really early on understood that velocity, dependability and client service was an indispensable factor for success in the planetary transit industry.IT in Human ResourcesFedEx had in topographic point Interactive Video Instructions ( IVI ) that allowed employees to take advantage of slack periods to develop themselves at any clip of the twenty-four hours. The plan was used for preparation and trial r eadying ( Customer service employees at FedEx were tested twice a twelvemonth on occupation cognition ) .IT in Customer ServiceFedEx besides used IT to better upon its client service, by supervising assorted facets of a client ‘s dealing. The end was to accomplish â€Å" 100 % truth, quality, and client satisfaction † on all minutess. One such system that FedEx used was the Service Quality index ( SQI ) that quantified every portion of a dealing like â€Å" Was the bundle undamaged? Was the client billed right? †Using the InternetThe widespread usage of the Internet from the early 1990s threw unfastened important chances for FedEx. Since the company already had an EDI based system on which it had spent a batch of money, FedEx decided to utilize a combination of Internet and the EDI. One illustration was the execution done for the buying of merchandises. FedEx purchased a merchandise from a company called Ariba. Ariba was a requisitioning system that was housed on the FedEx intranet. The system was set up so that providers could keep a database of catalogs that could be accessed by any FedEx employee. The company website hosts more than 6.3 million alone visitants per month and grips on an norm over 2.4 million bundle tracking petitions daily. More than 2 million clients connected with the company electronically every twenty-four hours, and electronic minutess accounted for about two-thirds of the more than five million cargos FedEx delivered daily. FedEx operates one of the universe ‘s largest computing machine and telecommunications networks- more than 75,000-networked computing machines and 1000s of handheld computing machines that recorded and tracked cargos. FedEx ‘s informations centre processes more than 20 million information direction system minutess daily, more than any other US company. The company is involved in linking 39 hubs across the Earth, runing 677 planes and 90,000 vehicles, supervising 200,000 employees and presenting six million bundles daily in 220 states where every second was of import. This is the ‘FEDEX EDGE ‘ , for which the company is known for. FedEx transformed both client and concern transit theoretical account with higher velocity, dependability, application of information engineering, improved stuff managing system and streamlined logistics web. The company popularized the constructs of ‘just-in-time ‘ and ‘build-to-order ‘ which reduced client ‘s lead clip and increased productiveness. Apart from embarking into ‘logistics solution supplier ‘ the company was able to keep its leading place in little bundle and light cargo market through its alone ‘hub and spoke ‘ theoretical account. The function information engineering has played in FedEx ‘s scheme is exciting. By utilizing IT as a major portion of its concern, FedEx has reached an about wholly new group of people. It has maintained its repute and increased its concern at the same clip. IT has created a greater chance for clients in the planetary market. They can now bespeak service, wage for that service, and track the bundle online. Customers no longer necessitate to talk to FedEx. They are now free to order as they need, 24 hours per twenty-four hours, seven yearss per hebdomad. Because of this, FedEx ‘s scheme has changed. It is now focused on the usage of the Internet and other technological progresss. Because this is such a critical facet of the scheme, the execution of the scheme had to be about immediate. To vie with other major concerns in the industry, FedEx had to supply a service to clients that could be accessed utilizing engineering. They besides had to supply a bundle tracking service. As they developed this service, their repute and concern grew. FedEx has done several things with its value concatenation to develop new concern. First they have ever recognized the demand to hold engineering and IT work to pass on the logistics that they run. They have developed cyberspace engineerings that work merely and expeditiously to enable clients and Sellerss to utilize FedEx as a spell between. This has enabled many companies to incorporate FedEx engineering into their ain web sites for clients to utilize.Question Two: – Stigmatization and concern construction up until 19 January 2000Using information from the instance survey and your ain research, critically evaluate the benefits and restrictions of Merger and Acquisition ( M & A ; A ) strategies in the Global Transportation and Logistics Industry. Discuss how FedEx Corporation managed the acquisition of Caliber Systems in 1998, and find whether or non the acquisition of Caliber Systems was a success or failure?Mergers & A ; acquisitions in the Transportation & A ; Logisticss industryThe Transport and Logistics ( T & A ; L ) sector is characterized by a important degree of denationalization, finance-raising and amalgamation and acquisition activity. Minutess are frequently complex and impacted by the regulative environment, competition issues, or demand for contracted subsidies to back up operations. We have witnessed many denationalizations of coach companies, ports and airdromes which have created successful private sector groups that have continued to turn via farther acquisitions. In other sections there is ongoing planetary consolidation within and between operators from the messenger, package, cargo forwarding and contract logistics arenas. Postal organisations and railroad companies that have historically been more nationally oriented are now seeking chances to spread out into cross-border markets driven by a more commercial focal point and broad regulative government.Transportation & A ; LogisticssThe Transportation & A ; Logistics ( T & A ; L ) industry forms the anchor of planetary supply ironss. Postal operators every bit good as big logistics suppliers play a dominant function as cardinal stakeholders in the T & A ; L industry. In recent old ages some former national Posts have undergone an extended transmutation to emerge as transnational suppliers of complex logisti cs and fiscal services. These evolved entities face new competition in their nucleus markets of mail bringing through the liberalisation of markets and denationalization. At the same clip, former Posts may be able to leverage their old ages of experience in roll uping, processing, transporting and presenting national and international mail in order to develop and supply a broader pallet of logistics based services, upstream with direct mail activities and downstream with bundle bringing and payment services. Further, many bing logistics and express companies have expanded good beyond simple bringing services and are now pull offing all facets of the supply concatenation. These ongoing tendencies have changed the face of an industry which has become progressively focussed on functioning clients in all parts of the universe. Amalgamations and Acquisitions: Three types Amalgamation: A dealing where two houses agree to incorporate their operations on a comparatively coequal footing because they have resources and capablenesss that together may make a stronger competitory advantage. Acquisition: A dealing where one house buys another house with the purpose of more efficaciously utilizing a nucleus competency by doing the acquired house a subordinate within its portfolio of concerns. Coup d'etat: An acquisition where the mark house did non beg the command of the geting house.Problems inAchieving SuccessIntegration Difficulties/Cultures Inadequate rating of mark Excessively much variegation Large or extraordinary debt Inability to achieve synergism Directors excessively focused on acquisitions Too big Increased market power Overcome ent entry barriers Lower hazard compared to developing new merchandises Cost of new merchandise development Increased velocity to market Increased variegation Avoid inordinate competitionAcquisitionsReasons forAcquisitionsBenefits of AcquisitionsIncreased Market Power: Acquisition intended to cut down the competitory balance of the industry Overcome Barriers to Entries: Acquisitions overcome dearly-won barriers to entry which may do â€Å" start-ups † economically unattractive Lower Cost and Risk of New Product Development: Buying established concerns reduces hazard of start-up ventures Increased Speed to Market: Closely related to Barriers to Entry, allows market entry in a more timely manner Diversification: Quick manner to travel into concerns when house presently lacks experience and deepness in industry Reshaping Competitive Scope: Firms may utilize acquisitions to curtail its dependance on a individual or a few merchandises or marketsProblems with AcquisitionsMerely a â€Å" fiscal squad † assembled and they make â€Å" the determination † ( should hold two squads: one fiscal and one organisational – where the organisational Team says â€Å" Yes † or â€Å" No † Integration Troubles: Differing fiscal and control systems can do integrating of houses hard Inadequate Evaluation of Target: â€Å" Winners Curse † command causes acquirer to overpay for house Large or Extraordinary Debt: Costly debt can make burdensome load on hard currency escapes Inability to Achieve Synergy: Justifying acquisitions can increase estimation of expected benefits Excessively Diversified: Acquirer does n't hold expertness required to pull off unrelated concerns Directors Excessively Focused on Acquisitions: Directors may neglect to objectively measure the value of results achieved through the house ‘s acquisition scheme Excessively Large: Large bureaucratism reduces invention and flexibleness FedEx Corporation has made 31 acquisitions while taking bets in 3 companies. FedEx Corporation has 22 divestitures during this period. FedEx-Caliber Amalgamation: Reason for Merger: FedEx and Caliber believe that the combination of the two companies will allow their clients to take advantage of a broader portfolio of services and picks at a degree of excellence unmatched by any rival. Stockholders of both companies will go shareholders of a $ 15 billion human dynamo in planetary transit and logistics. When FedEx announced in October 1997 that it was purchasing Caliber System for $ 2.4 billion, perceivers warned that the amalgamation could interrupt FedEx ‘s already profitable express transportation concern. Perceivers were incorrect. FedEx finalized its Caliber System amalgamation in January 1998, and by the terminal of that twelvemonth, the new company, FDX, was posting a seven per centum addition over the same one-fourth the twelvemonth earlier. Domestic income grew 30 per centum that period, from $ 168 million to $ 217 million. The company claimed that its tough cost controls and low fuel monetary values contributed to this short-run growing. FedEx subordinates that came from Caliber Systems besides grew. RPS, the largest subordinate besides FedEx, grew 14 per centum for the period, while Viking Freight grew seven per centum. In the long-run, the amalgamation strengthened FedEx ‘s overall wellness. UPS mostly rebounded from a stultifying 15-day work stoppage in 1997, and now the two companies compete head-to-head for the express-shipping concern in most markets. While FedEx does conflict, several smaller companies continue their dependable service for niche markets, such as logistics operations, business-to-business transit, overseas transportation, and little bundle bringing. FedEx has ensured its long-run endurance by purchasing several of these smaller companies. After the Caliber System amalgamation, FedEx included six runing divisions: FedEx ; RPS, the second-largest small-package transportation concern ; Roberts Express, the universe ‘s largest express hauling house ; Viking Freight, a prima regional hauling company ; Caliber Logistics, a logistics outsourcing house ; and Caliber Technology, an order fulfilment operation.Question Three: – Events taking up to the January 2000 reorg anizationUsing appropriate illustrations from FedEx Corporation, critically evaluate FedEx ‘s fiscal and non-financial public presentation in the context of developments in the â€Å" Internet market and e-tailing † up to the January 2000 reorganization.Fiscal Performance AnalysisFedEx has an impressive public presentation record. In 1998 they had grosss of $ 15.9 billion adult 15 per centum from 1997. Gross saless have been turning steadily for the past five old ages. The net income, though, is n't that impressive. It even declined in 1997, from the lifting fuel costs during that twelvemonth. However, in 1998 it grew from $ 200,000 to $ 500,000. That could be from decrease in operating costs, or from the acquisition of the subordinates which had lower operating costs compared to Federal Express. FedEx ‘s fiscal statements shows that its assets have non been utilized every bit good as other houses in their industry, but their profitableness is better than other industry houses. Still they must diminish merchandising and administrative disbursals while increasing gross revenues. Many of their technological promotions have been financed chiefly with internal hard currency, which decreases long-run debt. Future assets perchance and should be invested in the international market and new concerns, while still puting a nice per centum for technological promotions. Today FedEx has a competitory advantage over other houses and if they continue the patterns that they have in the past, while besides opening up to new thoughts, FedEx will stay a human dynamo in the bundle bringing industry. The fiscal ratios for FedEx clearly show that it is the market leader in this industry, have outstanding gross revenues, a healthy net income, and a safe sum of debt. These ratios over clip demo a steady addition, except for twelvemonth 1997, where fuel costs hurt FedEx deeply.Company AnalysisIn this subdivision we shall discourse FedEx ‘s strengths and failings as a company, chances and menaces. S.W.O.T. Analysis Company Strengths and Resource Capabilities: Globalism: Federal Express operates on a planetary graduated table in 211 states. They provide services that appeal to most of the universe, realize enormous grosss and besides achieve planetary economic systems of graduated table. Invention: Federal Express took aeroplanes and trucks and used them otherwise than any other company before them. This is invention. They have first-mover advantage in name acknowledgment because of this invention. This has helped them to stay the industry leader since 1973. Technology and Communication: Federal Express utilizations and continues to seek for new engineering. They allow passing of $ 1billion a twelvemonth, 10 % of entire grosss, for information engineering. That commitment keeps clients from exchanging to other suppliers. Federal Express besides has first-class communicating with their clients. They use tracking devices on all cargos, and clients can happen out where their cargo is through many different avenues including a user-friendly Web site. Federal Express clients are assured that FedEx will ever be on top of engineering. Strategic Vision: Federal Express ‘ will ever hold competent top directors in charge of strategic way. Frederick Smith built an industry leader, and kept it in that place since 1973. First-Mover Advantage: Federal Express has had first-mover advantage in several countries. ( 1 ) Bing a planetary express transit company. ( 2 ) Advanced engineering and communicating throughout the company ‘s operations. ( 3 ) Integrating smaller companies with similar operations under its belt to synergize and command more of the market. Strong Brand Image: In 1990, Federal Express became the first company awarded the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in the service class. In 1994, Federal Express became the first planetary express transit company to obtain coincident system-wide ISO 9001 enfranchisement in international quality criterions. Federal Express has besides developed their ain quality system that matches their client ‘s criterions. Company Weaknesses and Resource Lacks: Rising Monetary values: Federal Express ‘ monetary values are above their rivals ‘ . This can be a failing if their clients do non comprehend a difference between Federal Express and its rivals ‘ services. Labor Disputes with Pilots: Federal Express pilots have formed the Fedex Pilots Association. This organisation demanded alterations in the pilots ‘ wages, retirement benefits, and the fact that Federal Express outsources some foreign flights alternatively of giving their ain pilots the occupation. The pilots have a Web site where intelligence is posted and feelings are discussed. During the busy Christmas season in 1998, the pilots threatened to strike. Federal Express and the Fedex Pilots Association have developed a probationary understanding, which is published on the pilots ‘ Web site. However, the pilots do non believe this understanding to the full meets their outlooks. This difference is decidedly an internal failing for Federal Express, sing they have 3,500 pilots employed with them. Their operations would endure if there were work stoppages. When UPS employees went on work stoppage in 1997, Federal Express took the excess 800,000 cargos a twenty-four hours. If Fe deral Express employees went on work stoppage, their rivals could derive an advantage. Runing Subordinates Individually: FDX has intentionally chosen to maintain their companies separate. In FDX ‘s 1998 Annual Report, CEO Frederick Smith provinces, â€Å" Simply layering the alone resource and operating demands of a time-definite, planetary, express-delivery web onto a day-definite, land small-package web would certainly ensue in lessened service quality and increased costs. Under the FDX umbrella, we will leverage our shared strengths while runing each bringing web independently, with each focused on its several markets. † Frederick Smith is confident this will be a strength, alternatively of a failing. Time will state. Company Opportunities: Expansion Globally: Federal Express can go on to spread out globally, including the other companies under FedEX. Expansion Internally: Federal Express can go on to get more companies, and spread out into new engineerings or countries in their industry. Run Subsidiaries Together: If FDX does n't gain from running the subordinates individually, they can alter to incorporating their operations to accomplish better synergisms and economic systems of graduated table. Contracts with Large Corporations: To remain the industry leader, Federal Express should organize contracts with companies who will add cost-saving or value-adding benefits to their services. Joint-Ventures: Federal Express can organize joint ventures, such as already with Netscape and American Express, to bask the growing of incorporating their client bases. Expansion of e-commerce: Federal Express already has a major presence of transporting online. They should maintain happening Internet companies to contract bringing of their merchandises. Since the growing of e-commerce is rapid now, Federal Express could bask both net incomes and trade name name acknowledgment from this sort of enlargement. Company Threats: Y2k Problem: If Federal Express ‘ communicating and tracking systems are n't really Year 2000 ready, they will see lost cargos, lost clients, and lost net incomes. This is a menace for every concern, but a planetary company will be affected on a larger graduated table. Community Responsibility in the U.S. : Federal Express might be capable to community disapproval in enlargement within the United States. Right now, Federal Express has programs to construct a 2nd super-hub in Greensboro, NC. The airdrome is supportive, but the citizens of the community are non. Federal Express has to make up one's mind whether the community support or constructing the centre is more of import. Relationss with Foreign States: Through Federal Express ‘ enlargements globally, they are capable to Torahs and ordinances of all foreign states. There could be major jobs in this country, stunting growing and elevation costs. Already, Great Britain will non allow Federal Express fly their ain planes for cargos. Federal Express must either lade their lading on to British planes, or usage land transit. This is really inefficient for Federal Express ; nevertheless, it keeps competition out for British Air Transportation companies. Everywhere Federal Express goes, they are at hazard for ordinances that hinder their operations or efficiency. Economic and Political Conditionss: Federal Express is capable to the full universe ‘s economic and political status in the countries of fuel monetary values and supply, client purchase of their services, and dealingss with foreign states. As a planetary company, they are capable to much more hazard than domestic companies. Industry Prospects and Overall Attractiveness A tendency among Air Freight shippers is to utilize the Internet for communicating with clients and even obtaining transporting contracts with companies selling on the Internet. This confederation with the fastest-growing industry will convey exponential growing to the Air Freight industry, above and beyond what they would usually hold realized without this. This industry would stay attractive, with concentration on competition for market portion, service distinction, and trade name image.RecommendationsBased on the company history, company analysis, industry analysis and public presentation analysis, we have the undermentioned recommendations for Federal Express. Ensure that the employees, particularly pilots, are good compensated. Since Federal Express is a service company, employees are critical to its success. Place pilots ‘ wages at or above the industry norm. They need to keep a strong presence on the Internet, in instance of a shakedown, and happen ways to do their e-commerce user-friendly and profitable. They need to maintain monetary values within 10 % of their rivals monetary values, or do certain that their clients view their service as worth the monetary value.